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Drugs Fut 2009, 34(4): 297
ISSN 0377-8282
e-ISSN 2013-0368
Copyright 2009 Clarivate
CCC: 0377-8282
DOI: 10.1358/dof.2009.034.04.1352676
Inhibitors of the sodium/glucose contransport
Albertoni Borghese, M.F., Majowicz, M.P.
Sodium/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) belong to the solute carrier family 5 (SLC5), which has more than 200 members in animal and bacterial cells. This gene family was originally thought to contain only 11 members of the human genome (SLC5A1-SLC5A11), but the GenBankĀ® database also shows the presence of an additional member (SLC5A12). Most of the proteins coded for by these genes behave as cotransporters of diverse solutes such as glucose, amino acids, neurotransmitters, osmolytes, iodide, vitamins and anions. However, some of them have other novel and diverse functions that include water and urea transport, glucosensation and tumor suppression. Of all the members of the SLC5 family, only some transport glucose: SGLT1 and SGLT2 which are expressed at the proximal tubular level, where they reabsorb glucose from the glomerular filtrate. Recently, selective SGLT2 inhibitors have been developed as potential antidiabetic agents due to their ability to enhance glucose and energy loss through the urine, without affecting renal function and minimizing potential side effects associated with the broad tissue distribution of SGLT1. The aim of this article is to describe the biology of the members of the sodium/glucose cotransport family, giving special attention to those which are members of the human genome, and to outline the importance and pharmacological profile of SGLT inhibitors, especially inhibitors of SGLT2.

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